|2019-11-01 来源： 中国石化新闻网|
摩根先进材料公司的Nilcra二氧化锆就是这样一种镁稳定氧化锆，在高磨损率的应用中是一种耐用、简单的替代材料。通过使用这种氧化锆陶瓷，砂质原油泵的大修间隔时间可以从典型的1年延长到4 - 6年。
泵叶轮轴上的OEM耐磨环由420不锈钢270- 300BHH和420不锈钢350- 400BHH组成。这些耐磨环在砂井作业中使用了12-15个月，之后需要进行全面检修。
曹海斌 摘译自 油气产品
Zirconia ceramics offer opportunities for savings in oil and gas operations
It goes without saying that crude oil is a valuable, or perhaps more accurately an invaluable product to all of us globally. The unrefined petroleum is pumped from reserves deep underground and by the barrel load, all day, every day.
In terms of demand and supply, the global fuel oil supply stands at 92.7 Mbpd (Million barrels per day), while the global fuel oil demand stands at 98.18 Mbpd. Demand is expected to increase, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.8 percent, until 2020. For all the efforts being put into renewable and alternative energy sources, the reliance on crude oil will not go away any time soon.
It is clear that investment, innovation and operational best practice must continue into the extraction of crude oil. Otherwise, supply slows down and the price per barrel of crude oil then increases due to the imbalance.
A key component that helps to keep supply up, are pumps. Unlike the slick and smooth products that it is turned into, crude oil is a petroleum composed of hydrocarbon deposits that ranges in viscosity, and contains oil, water and sand (often as the wells dry out increasingly) in its natural form.
Therefore, the pumps undertaking the extraction need to be durable and able to withstand the harsh, abrasive sandy oil. The first challenge is ensuring these costly pieces of equipment have a long lifespan, as only then can true value be achieved.
Typically, a ‘clean oil' pump - that is, a pump which is pumping purer crude oil - will last ten years between overhauls. However, with a sandy, dirtier crude oil, the pump life deteriorates to as little as one year.
The materials used to construct these parts are various grades of metal often coated with wear resistant sprays. When pumping, pressures range from 2,100kpa during suction up to 15,000kpa during discharge. These pressures, combined with the rough surfaces of the sand, will quickly erode wear rings and bearings. In turn, the pump becomes less effective and inefficient.
Parts made from magnesia stabilised zirconia (also known as MgPSZ) ceramic are fast becoming the preferred alternative.
Of the various grades of zirconia ceramic available on the market, it is the magnesia partially stabilised grade that is best suited to heavy duty pumps.
Morgan Advanced Materials' Nilcra Zirconia is one such grade of magnesia stabilised zirconia and is a robust and simple to use replacement material for applications where high wear rates occur. By using this type of zirconia ceramic, the time between overhauls for a sandy crude oil pump can increase from the typical one-year lifespan up to four to six years instead.
OEM wear rings fitted to the pump's impeller shaft were made from 420 stainless-steel 270-300 BHH and 420 stainless-steel 350-400 BHH. These wear rings lasted 12-15 months in a sandy well service, before requiring a total overhaul.
Meanwhile, wear rings made from Nilcra Zirconia were also fitted to a different section of the impeller shaft. Findings showed a huge decrease in the wear on the magnesia stabilised zirconia rings in comparison to the spray-coated stainless-steel rings. The life of the pump was extended by approximately four times as a result, with vastly reduced downtime and maintenance costs resulting in an increase to production.