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美国仍是全球最大的油气生产国

2020-05-25     来源: 中国石化新闻网
石化新闻

中国石化新闻网讯 据路透社5月23日报道,尽管当前需求降低和石油和天然气产量减少,但美国的原油和天然气产量仍然排名全球第一。

随着页岩革命的兴起,水力压裂和水平钻井等技术得以广泛使用,据美国能源信息署(EIA)的数据,截至2020年2月28日当周,美国原油日产量从2008年的平均500万桶飙升至创纪录的1310万桶。

根据EIA的数据,由于石油需求疲软和低油价,截至5月8日当周,美国原油产量降至1160万桶/天,预计2020年平均产量为1170万桶/天。

根据英国石油公司(BP)去年发布的《世界能源统计审查报告》(Statistical Review of World Energy report)提供的最新数据,2018年,美国在原油总量和全球石油产品产量方面仍居全球首位,日均产量为1530万桶。报告显示,紧随其后的是沙特阿拉伯,2018年的平均日产量为1220万桶,而俄罗斯的平均日产量为1140万桶。

美国原油进口下降,出口上升。多年来,页岩油革命帮助美国逐渐减少了原油进口量,也帮助美国开始出口原油。

2015年底,美国解除了自上世纪70年代以来实施的禁止出口国内生产的原油的禁令。EIA数据显示,自那以来,美国原油日出口量从2016年的平均59.1万桶增加至2020年2月的创纪录高位371万桶。在2019年前七个月,美国每月向多达31个目的地出口原油。

在进口方面,2006年页岩革命爆发前,美国保持了原油进口量的历史最高纪录,即1012万桶/天。该水平在2019年降至日均679万桶,2019年11月降至581万桶。美国将继续从北部邻国加拿大进口大部分原油,2019年加拿大平均每天进口381万桶原油。

然而,EIA的数据显示,美国仍严重依赖中东地区,2009年美国平均每天从沙特进口50万桶原油。然而,这一水平明显低于海湾战争后1991年创下的170万桶/天的历史最高水平。2019年美国从墨西哥进口的石油数量平均达到60万桶/天。

在天然气方面,EIA数据显示,自页岩革命以来,美国天然气产量也从2008年的21.1万亿立方英尺(5975亿立方米)跃升至2019年的36.2万亿立方英尺(1.02万亿立方米)。在天然气产量方面,美国仍然是世界第一。英国石油公司《世界能源统计报告》显示,2018年美国天然气产量平均约为8320亿立方米。

报告显示,俄罗斯以6690亿立方米的天然气产量紧随其后。十多年来一直是世界液化天然气出口冠军的卡塔尔,在2018年以1750亿立方米的天然气产量跌至第四位。加拿大仍然是美国天然气进口的主要供应国,美国几乎所有通过管道进口的天然气都是由加拿大提供的。2019年,美国从加拿大进口的天然气总量为2.68万亿立方英尺(759亿立方米)。2019年,美国从特立尼达进口的液化天然气最多,平均为468亿立方英尺(13.2亿立方米)。紧随其后的是尼日利亚的31亿立方英尺(8780万立方米)和法国的26亿立方英尺(7360万立方米)。

在液化天然气方面,2017年,由于液化天然气出口增加,输往墨西哥的管道数量增加,以及从加拿大进口的天然气减少,美国的天然气出口量开始超过进口量。2016年2月,美国Cheniere Energy旗下位于路易斯安那州的Sabine Pass液化终端首次向海外发货后,美国开始从48个州出口液化天然气。

从那时起,马里兰州的Cove Point液化天然气出口终端开始运作,德克萨斯州的Corpus Christi终端于2018年开始出口液化天然气。另外两个液化天然气出口终端——路易斯安那州的卡梅伦液化天然气和德克萨斯州的Freeport液化天然气终端也已投产,而佐治亚州的厄尔巴岛(Elba Island)液化天然气出口终端也即将全面投产。

根据EIA的数据,2016年2月只有一个终端的美国液化天然气出口量仅为33亿立方英尺,而在2020年1月则飙升至约2500亿立方英尺(71亿立方米)的历史最高水平。

王佳晶 摘译自 路透社

原文如下:

US remains biggest producer of oil, natural gas

The United States is still the reigning champion in crude oil and natural gas production despite coronavirus-related quarantine measures that are causing low demand and a cutback in oil and gas output.

With the shale revolution, which enabled the widespread use of methods such as hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, the U.S.' crude oil production soared from an annual average of 5 million barrels per day (bpd) in 2008 to a record high level of 13.1 million bpd for the week ending Feb. 28, 2020, according to the country's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

However, due to weak oil demand and low oil prices caused by COVID-19, U.S. crude oil production fell to 11.6 million bpd for the week ending May 8 and is expected to average 11.7 million bpd in 2020, according to the EIA.

The U.S. still comes on top in terms of total crude oil and global oil product output with an annual average of 15.3 million bpd in 2018, according to the latest data available based on BP's Statistical Review of World Energy report released last year.

It was followed by Saudi Arabia with an average of 12.2 million bpd in 2018 and Russia based on an average of 11.4 million bpd, the report showed.

Crude imports down, exports up

The shale oil revolution helped the U.S. to gradually lower the volume of crude oil imports over the years and also helped it to begin the export of crude oil.

In late 2015, U.S. lifted the self-imposed ban on the export of domestically produced crude oil that had been implemented in the country since the 1970s.

Since then, U.S. crude oil exports increased from an average of 591,000 bpd in 2016 to a record high level of 3.71 million bpd in February 2020, the EIA showed.

During the first seven months of 2019, the U.S. exported crude oil to as many as 31 destinations per month, according to the EIA.

As for imports, the U.S. held the all-time annual high record of 10.12 million bpd of crude imports in 2006 before the shale revolution started. This level declined to an annual average of 6.79 million bpd in 2019, and to as low as 5.81 million bpd in November last year.

The U.S. continues to import most of its crude from its northern neighbor Canada, which averaged 3.81 million bpd last year.

However, the U.S. continues to rely heavily on the Middle East where U.S. imports from Saudi Arabia averaged 500,000 bpd in 2009, according to the EIA data. However, that level is significantly down from the all-time highest level of 1.7 million bpd recorded in 1991 right after the Gulf War.

After Saudi Arabia, Mexico ranks second with U.S. imports from its southern neighbor reaching an annual average of 600,000 bpd in 2019.

Natural gas

Since the shale revolution, U.S. natural gas production also jumped from 21.1 trillion cubic feet (597.5 billion cubic meters) in 2008 to 36.2 trillion cubic feet (1.02 trillion cubic meters) in 2019, according to the EIA data.

The U.S. is still the world leader when it comes to natural gas production, which averaged approximately 832 billion cubic meters in 2018, according to BP's Statistical Review of World Energy report.

Russia followed that year with 669 billion cubic meters of natural gas production, while Iran was in third place with 239 billion cubic meters of gas output, the report showed. Qatar, the world's reigning liquefied natural gas (LNG) export champion for more than a decade, fell to fourth place in 2018 with 175 billion cubic meters of gas production.

Canada is still the top country for supplying the majority of U.S. natural gas imports and constitutes almost all of the U.S.' gas purchases via pipeline.

In 2019, U.S. gas imports from Canada totaled 2.68 trillion cubic feet (75.9 billion cubic meters), the EIA data showed.

As for LNG in 2019, the U.S. imported the most from Trinidad with an average of 46.8 billion cubic feet (1.32 billion cubic meters).

That was followed by Nigeria with 3.1 billion cubic feet (87.8 million cubic meters) and France with 2.6 billion cubic feet (73.6 million cubic meters), according to the EIA data.

LNG export projects

The U.S. started exporting more natural gas than it imports on an annual basis in 2017 due to increased LNG exports, the rise in pipeline exports to Mexico, and fewer gas imports from Canada.

The U.S. began exporting LNG from lower 48 states, excluding Mexico, in February 2016, when Cheniere Energy's Sabine Pass liquefaction terminal in the U.S. state of Louisiana shipped its first cargo overseas.

Since then, the Cove Point LNG export facility began operations in Maryland, and the Corpus Christi facility in Texas started exporting LNG in 2018.

Two more LNG export facilities, Cameron LNG in Louisiana and Freeport LNG in Texas, were also commissioned, while Elba Island LNG facility in Georgia is close to becoming fully operational for LNG exports.

According to the EIA data, U.S. LNG exports only stood at 3.3 billion cubic feet in February 2016 when there was only one terminal, and soared to the all-time highest level of approximately 250 billion cubic feet (7.1 billion cubic meters) in January 2020.

 
 
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